At the present time, prices on energy sources are rising, and as еру consequence, the heat in your home is becoming more expensive, and the issues of operating costs are coming to the main positions, when choosing dwelling, the energy saving index of the building is the amount of used heat energy for the whole year for heating one square meter of the area (kW -h / m²).

Energy-efficient house — such term usually refers to a house with low energy consumption in comparison with standard houses. In such houses, increased thermal insulation is used, the number of thermal bypasses is minimized, energy-efficient windows are installed, the shell of the entire house is hermetic, which excludes any draughts and air penetration from outside, ventilation with obligatory heat recuperation and stringent heating requirements.

For the European Union countries, priority is given to the development of the construction of energy-efficient houses, the European Commission issued in 2002 the Directive on the Energy Consumption of Buildings in Europe. By 2020, the European Union will build houses with only zero energy consumption.

In most European countries since 2002, the requirement for heating of energy-efficient buildings is not more than 60 kW / m².

For the first time, Germany introduced standards for increasing of thermal insulation of buildings in 1979. These standards were abolished in 2002 by the Energy Saving Ordinance (Energieeinsparverordnung, EnEV), which limited the energy consumption for newly constructed buildings; since the beginning of 2008 (by the ordinance of EnEV of 2007), obligatory labelling on the energy consumption of all residential buildings is used, and since 2009 of non-residential. After the introduction of the new ordinance of EnEV of 2009, the minimum standard has been reduced by 30%.

The passive house standards are set by the Passivhaus Institute. The reference fuel concept, expressed in liters, is used for the total amount of primary energy, spent on heating of 1 m² of the building. For example, the concept of “3 litres house” means that this building spends no more than 3 litres of liquid fuel per year for heating of one square meter of the house area, which corresponds to approximately 30 kWh of heat energy per square meter of the area, and the concept of the passive house, corresponds to the parameters of the “1.5 litre house”, it implies energy consumption on the level of 15 kW / h per square meter of the area per year, that is an equivalent to 1.5 litre of liquid fuel, this is the maximum level of energy consumption for the passive house.

An energy-saving house cannot consume more than 70 kWh per square meter per year, this is the maximum level of energy consumption for energy-saving houses, if this level is exceeded, then this facility cannot be considered as energy-saving.

EUROPEAN CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION:

  • The old building — (the building built before 1970), such buildings need 300 kWh of energy per square meter of space per year.
  • New building — (built between 1970 and 2000), such buildings need not more than 150 kW • h / m² per year
  • House of low energy consumption — (since 2002 in Europe construction of lower standard houses is prohibited) - no more than 60 kWh / m² per year
  • Passive house — no more than 15 kWh / m² per year
  • House of zero energy  — (House, that has architecturally the same standard as the passive house, but engineering is equipped in such a way as to consume only the energy that the house produces itself) &mdash 0 kWh / m² per year.
  • «House plus energy» or «active house» — (the house, which with the help of the equipment installed in it: solar batteries, collectors, heat pumps, ventilation recuperators, ground heat exchangers, etc., would generate more energy than it consumed).

Energy consumption of average buildings in Ukraine amounts to 400 - 600 kWh / m² per year. In the best cases, it can reach the level of 200-350 kWh / m² per year.

Характеристики энергоэффективности сборного дома

Index 1.5 litre house 3-litres house 5-litres house
Annual energy consumption for heating (per square meter of the house area) < 15 kWh < 30 kWh < 50 kWh
U - value of the externasl wall < 0.16 W / m2K < 0.18 W / m2K < 0.24 W / m2K
U - value of the roof < 0.10 W / m2K < 0.18 W / m2K < 0.24 W / m2K
U – value of the foundation < 0.15 W / m2K < 0.23 W / m2K < 0.30 W / m2K
U - value of the windows < 0.70 W / m2K < 0.70 W / m2K < 1.3 W / m2K
Controlled ventilation with the recuperation > 75%